Sinuses are openings in the bones around your nose. Four pairs of sinuses are connected to the nose by small openings. These sinuses are located behind the cheekbones, alongside your nose, and above your eyebrows.
Humans produce one litre of fluid per day that cleanse the passageways and provide necessary moisture to the lining of each sinus. Tiny little hairs, called cilia, line the sinus membranes and flush the fluid through in a constant carwash-like motion. Under normal conditions, air passes in and out of the sinuses and mucous fluid drains from the sinuses into the nose.
Sinusitis is the inflammation of the sinus cavities located on either side of your nose, and between and above your eyes. Inflammation occurs when there is an undrained collection of pus or mucus in one or more of the sinuses. Mucus production increases during inflammation resulting in a drippy, runny nose. This drainage thickens over time. If this mucus cannot drain out of the sinus due to a blockage, bacteria will grow and an infection occurs. This infected sinus is what produces the symptoms of sinusitis.
The surgery enlarges the natural opening to the sinuses. Additionally, the procedure should leave as many cilia (tiny little hairs in the sinus), in place as possible. Endoscopic sinus surgery is particularly successful in removing areas of obstruction and allowing the normal flow of mucus.
Nose bleed - Epistaxis
The nose can bleed for a variety of reasons:
First, help the person to stay calm, especially a young child. A person who is agitated may bleed more than someone who’s been reassured and supported. Then:
Allergy or Hay Fever
Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts to an allergic substance that has entered the body as though it were an unwelcome invader. The immune system will produce special antibodies capable of recognizing the same allergic substance if it enters the body at a later time.
When an allergen reenters the body, the immune system rapidly recognizes it, causing a series of reactions. These reactions often involve tissue destruction, blood vessel dilation, and production of many inflammatory substances, including histamine. Histamine produces common allergy symptoms such as itchy, watery eyes, nasal and sinus congestion, headaches, sneezing, scratchy throat, hives, shortness of breath, etc. Other less common symptoms are skin irritations such as eczema, and even respiratory problems like asthma
Many common substances can be allergens. Pollens, food, mold, dust, feathers, animal dander, chemicals, drugs such as penicillin, and environmental pollutants commonly cause many to suffer allergic reactions.
For some allergy sufferers, symptoms may be seasonal, but for others they produce year-round discomfort. Symptom control is most successful when multiple approaches are used simultaneously to manage the allergy. They may include minimizing exposure to allergens, desensitization with allergy shots or drops, and medications. If used properly, medications, including antihistamines, nasal decongestant sprays, steroid sprays, saline sprays, and cortisone-type preparations, can be helpful. Even over-the-counter drugs can be beneficial, but some may cause drowsiness.
The most appropriate person to evaluate allergy problems is an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist). Besides gathering a detailed history and completing a thorough examination of the ears, nose & throat, the ENT doctor will offer advice on proper environmental control. They will also evaluate the sinuses to determine if infection or structural abnormality (deviated septum, polyps) is contributing to the symptoms.
In addition, the doctor may advise testing to determine the specific allergen that is causing discomfort. In some cases subcutaneous immunotherapy (allergy shots) or sublingual immunotherapy (allergy drops) may be recommended. Immunotherapy is a method of treating allergies by desensitizing individuals to allergens over time, in many cases with the goal that they be cured of their allergies.
• Wear a pollen mask when mowing grass or cleaning house (most drugstores sell them).
• Keep windows and doors closed during heavy pollen seasons.
• Wipe down indoor-outdoor animals as they return inside to remove pollen on their fur.
• Use daily saline nasal rinses to cleanse your nose and sinuses of the offending allergens.
• Rid your home of sources of mildew.
• Try not to allow dander-producing animals (i.e., cats, dogs, etc.) into your home and bedroom. However, if you have a pet, ask your ENT for suggestions to allow you to enjoy your pet while also enjoying a life free of allergies.
• Change feather pillows, woolen blankets, and woolen clothing to cotton or synthetic materials.
• Enclose mattress, box springs, and pillows in a plastic barrier.
• Use over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants as needed and as tolerated. However, you will likely find the best allergy symptom control with topical nasal sprays and drops that can be prescribed by your ENT.
• Sleep with the head of the bed tilted upward. Elevating it helps relieve nasal congestion.
• Discuss hay fever and allergy symptoms with a physician when experiencing an allergic reaction.